Rurality and race in heart failure risk: Insights from the Southern Community Cohort Study


  • Susy Kotit Aswan Heart Centre (AHC), Aswan, Egypt



Introduction: Rural-urban health disparities are apparent in the burden of disease and health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically heart failure (HF). However, the factors influencing these disparities are not fully understood.

Study and results: Among 27,115 participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) (mean age: 54 years (47-65)), 18,647 (68.8%) were black, 8,468 (32.3%) were white, and 20% resided in rural areas. Over a median 13-year follow-up period, 7,542 HF events occurred (rural=1,865 vs. urban=5,677). The age-adjusted HF incidence was 29.6 (95% CI,28.9-30.5) and 36.5 (95% CI, 34.9-38.3) per 1,000 person-years for urban and rural participants, respectively (P<.001).

The risk of HF associated with rurality varied by race and sex. Rural black men had the highest risk across all groups (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.51) (age-adjusted incidence rate: 40.4/1000 person-years (95% CI, 36.8-44.3)) followed by black women (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.28) and white women (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07-1.39). Rurality was not associated with HF risk among white men (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.81-1.16).






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