Myocarditis and COVID-19 related issues
The recent COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) pandemic by SARS-CoV2 infection has caused millions of deaths and hospitalizations across the globe. In the early pandemic phases, the infection had been initially considered a primary pulmonary disease. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated a wide range of possible cardiac involvement. Most of systemic and cardiac damage is likely sustained by a complex interplay between inflammatory, immune-related and thrombotic mechanisms. Biventricular failure and myocardial damage with elevation of cardiac biomarkers have been reported in COVID-19 patients, although histological demonstration of acute myocarditis has been rarely documented. Indeed while cardiac magnetic resonance findings include different patterns of myocardial involvement in terms of late gadolinium enhancement, histological data from necropsy and endomyocardial biopsy showed peculiar inflammatory patterns, mostly composed by macrophages. On the other hand COVID-19 vaccines based on mRN technology have been also associated with increased risk of myocarditis. COVID-19 and mRNA vaccine-related myocarditis present different clinical and imaging presentations and recent data suggest the presence of distinctive immunological mechanisms involved.
Copyright (c) 2023 Michele Ciabatti, Chiara Zocchi, Iacopo Olivotto, Leonardo Bolognese, Maurizio Pieroni
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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.