Influence of cigarette smoking on the Index of Cardiac Electrophysiological Balance in apparently healthy Angolans
Background: Tobacco use accelerates atherosclerosis and is one of the predictors of death from ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden death. A new non-invasive parameter, the Index of Cardiac Electrophysiological Balance (iCEB) between depolarization and repolarization of the action potential, was considered a new biomarker for the identification of patients at increased arrhythmic risk.
Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the iCEB in apparently healthy Angolans with habitual cigarette smoking compared to non-smokers.
Subjects and methods: Data were obtained from the CardioBengo study, a cross-sectional community-based study in which a random sample of individuals aged between 15 and 84 years was selected. In total, 214 apparently healthy subjects, 102 smokers, and 112 non-smokers in the same age group were included in the final analysis.
Results: The average age of the participants was 42.17±13.04 years old and 26.6% of the sample was female. Smoking subjects had higher iCEB and corrected Index of Cardiac Electrophysiological Balance (iCEBc) values compared with non-smoking controls (4.39 vs. 4.25; p=0.024, respectively), and (4.74 vs. 4.57; p=0.030, respectively).
Conclusions: In summary, iCEB and iCEBc were significantly higher in habitual smokers than in nonsmokers, which represents an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmogenesis in healthy habitual smokers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed in Africa to evaluate iCEB in smokers, making this type of study very important in low- and middle-income countries in the context of epidemiological transition.
Copyright (c) 2023 Mauer Gonçalves, João Mário Pedro, Carina Silva, Pedro Magalhães, Miguel Brito
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