Long-term outcomes from the UK Biobank on the impact of coffee on cardiovascular disease, arrhythmias, and mortality: Does the future hold coffee prescriptions?
Coffee is a popular beverage and the most used psychostimulant worldwide. Habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a growing list of health benefits; however, coffee consumption has been a source of longstanding debate. Recent observational studies have challenged the misconception of caffeine and reported the safety and beneficial effects of coffee intake on a range of cardiovascular (CV) conditions, including coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke, leading to a decreased risk of CVD, all-cause and CVD mortality, and being associated with favorable CV outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of caffeine remain speculative, and there is a lack of dedicated studies aimed at addressing the impact of different coffee subtypes on clinical outcomes such as CVD, arrhythmia, and mortality.
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