Middle aortic syndrome in children and adolescents
Middle aortic syndrome is a rare form of renovascular disease that may present with severe hypertension during childhood. Narrowing of the abdominal aorta is often associated with narrowing of the renal and/or other visceral arteries and may be secondary to specific genetic syndromes. Following the optimization of blood pressure control, significant aortic narrowing often requires invasive management, including endovascular and surgical intervention. In younger children, endovascular therapy may be attempted in the first instance to acutely reduce the pressure gradient across the narrowing; however, a sustained benefit is rare. Once the child has grown to accommodate a graft of an adequate size, surgical therapy is indicated for patients in whom medical and/or endovascular management has not resulted in adequate blood pressure control. It is critical that individuals with middle aortic syndrome be managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team that includes medical, endovascular, and surgical expertise that can provide long-term care to monitor for recurrent hypertension and evidence of end-organ damage.
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