Acute Kawasaki disease with emphasis on the echocardiographic profile: A single center experience

Hala S Hamza, Wessam A Rouff, Asmaa Z Zaher, Hala M Agha


Background: Echocardiographic features of acute Kawasaki disease (KD) have not been well characterized in Egyptian children. This study aimed to provide insight into the pattern of cardiac involvement in Egyptian children with Kawasaki disease, focusing on echocardiographic coronary abnormalities and their associated risk predictors.

Methods and Results: Medical records of 64 KD patients from 2012 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed with recalculation of coronary artery z-scores during the first eight weeks after fever onset. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and 57.8% were treated within 10 days of illness onset. Coronary abnormalities were found in 53.1% of all patients, and in 43.2% of those who received IVIG within 10 days. Giant aneurysms (z-score>10) comprised 23.5% of all coronary abnormalities. Coronary thrombosis occurred in two patients (5%), both of whom developed myocardial infarction, and one succumbed to heart failure with eventual in-hospital death. Overall, 7% of patients had mitral regurgitation (n = 5), 1.5% had aortic regurgitation (n = 1), and 7.8% had pericardial effusion (n = 5). Among a number of laboratory and clinical predictors, platelet count had the strongest association with coronary abnormalities (Area under Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.794; 95% confidence interval 0.678–0.910; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Coronary abnormalities occur in a substantial percentage of KD in Egypt, with associated evidence of severe inflammation. Further efforts are required to increase awareness of the disease and to emphasize the importance of early IVIG administration. Future studies should also be undertaken to characterize the long term progression profile of the disease as well as the possible genetic background of the disease in Egypt. 

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Copyright (c) 2018 Hala S Hamza, Wessam A Rouff, Asmaa Z Zaher, Hala M Agha

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